Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL). A commonly used term for this specialty is ENT (ear, nose and throat).
Often referred to as upper GI surgery, this surgical specialty focuses on the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. There are many operations relevant to the upper gastrointestinal area that are fairly complex.
General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on surgical treatment of abdominal organs, e.g. intestines including esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, often the thyroid gland and hernias.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (often abbreviated to OB/GYN) are the two surgical specialties that deal specifically with female reproductive organs. This combined disciplines the entire scope of clinical pathology, encompassing both pregnant and non-pregnant patients throughout a woman’s life.
Ophthalmology is the field that deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye, hairs, and areas surrounding the eye, such as the lacrimal system and eyelids. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both a surgical and medical specialty.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic, and overuse injuries and other disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In general, this covers sports medicine procedures, spine and hands. Orthopedic surgeons address most musculoskeletal ailments including arthritis, trauma and congenital deformities using both surgical and non-surgical means.
For many years, doctors have been helping to relieve their patients' pain with a variety of medications and treatments. Like other areas of medicine, a new subset of doctors have become specialists in treating pain. They are focused on managing all types of pain - studying what causes it, how the body reacts to it, how different medications dull or eliminate the pain, and how other treatments can be used to relieve many painful conditions.
Plastic surgery is the medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. While famous for aesthetic surgery of the face, breast, and abdomen, plastic surgery also includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns.
Cervical spinal surgery addresses those parts of the spine in the neck, including problems with the bones (vertebrae), disks, and nerves.
Urology is the field of medicine that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).